The increasing use of powder metallurgy techniques to make an almost infinite variety of materials and products places greater emphasis on utilization of sophisticated experimental techniques. Usually research and development efforts initiate the use of newly developed equipment and analytical procedures. Indeed, the contents of this book are strongly linked to research endeavors, in both the academic and industrials worlds. However, this volume can serve a much needed function in industrial applied powder metallurgy. Although many researchÂ ers will find the contents of great value, the technical personnel more involved with production, quality control, customer services and product design now have at their dispoÂ sal a means to learn about the potential uses of several very important techniques. With today's "knowledge explosion" the present set of papers greatly facilitates the comprehension and adoption of new procedures. If powder metallurgy is to continue its rapid rate of growth in virtually all segments of industry, then the transition of modern equipment and procedures from tools of research and development laboratories to everyday plant operations and applications must be hastened. The editors hope that this volume aids in this process, as well as assisting students and researchers by providing a ready source of up-to-date useful information.
The book presents a history of classical mechanics by focusing on issues of equilibrium. The historical point of view adopted here restricts attention to cases where the effectiveness of forces is assessed on the basis of the virtual motion of their points of application. For completeness, hints of the alternative approach are also referred, the Archimedean for ancient mechanics and the Newtonian for modern mechanics. The laws resulting from consideration of virtual motions are named laws of virtual work. The modern formulations of the principle of virtual work are only a particular form of them.
The book begins with the first documented formulations of laws of virtual work in the IV century BC in Greece and proceeds to the end of the XIX century AD in Europe. A significant space is devoted to Arabic and Latin mechanics of Middle Ages. With the Renaissance it began to appear slightly different wordings of the laws, which were often proposed as unique principles of statics. The process reached its apex with Bernoulli and Lagrange in the XVIII century. The book ends with some chapters dealing with the discussions that took place in the French school on the role of the Lagrangian version of the law of virtual work and its applications to continuum mechanics.
It goes without saying that the principles and techniques of molecular biology are having and will continue to have a major impact on investigations into nervous system structure and func tion. It is becoming increasingly apparent to neuroscientists in all subdisciplines that a working knowledge of the language, approaches, and techniques of molecular biology is indispensable for their work. For these reasons, the editors have decided to devote this volume of Neuromethods to the techniques of molecular biology and their application to neural systems. There currently exist a number of excellent reference technical manuals that de scribe molecular neurobiological techniques in great detail, and many of these are cited within the chapters included in this volume. It was not the intention of the editors or authors of this volume to duplicate these efforts. Rather, our intention was to present to the neuroscientist who is relatively unfamiliar with these methodologies an understanding of how specific techniques are used to approach major molecular neurobiological problems as well as a set of techniques that work in the laboratories of the individuals writing the chapters. In some cases, there are duplica tions of techniques these have been retained to illustrate the range of variability of the technique and/or the flexibility of the method to study different types of problems. We hope that the chapters will provide the reader with an understanding of the methods and their applicability to neurobiological problems; and, perhaps, suggest new directions for the reader's research efforts. Anthony T.
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