Firebrand Waves of Digital Activism 1994-2014 introduces four waves of upsurge in digital activism and cyberconflict. The rise of digital activism started in 1994, was transformed by the events of 9/11, culminated in 2011 with the Arab Spring uprisings, and entered a transformative phase of control and mainstreaming since 2013 with the Snowden affair. The book's argument is that digital activism is entering a phase of mainstreaming as 'politics as usual': an established element in the fabric of political life with no exceptional qualities, normalized and mainstreamed by governments through collaboration with corporations and the cooptation of NGOs. Cyberconflict will revolve more around high-level information warfare of attacking infrastructure, rather than just using ICTs to mobilise or as a weapon for low-level societal and largely symbolic attacks. The book goes on to elaborate on how the higher level character of conflict in digital networks will intensify to the extent that digital activism and cyberconflict of the last two decades shall pale by comparison.
Transport Properties of Concrete covers how to measure the ability of ions and fluids to move through concrete material, and how to use the results to model performance. These transport properties largely determine the durability of concrete and of steel embedded within it, as well as the effectiveness of structures such as landfill containment barriers.
The book begins by explaining in detail what transport properties are and how to write computer models for transport processes. Early chapters present and explain computer models written in basic code. Coverage then proceeds to a wide range of tests for the transport properties of concrete, and methods for calculating the values for these properties from the test results using analytical and numerical models. The final chapters then show how the values obtained can be used to predict the durability of reinforced concrete, to model the effect of gas pressure, and to model waste containment structures. A number of practical examples are given, in which the calculations and computer models have been applied to real experimental data.
Transport Properties of Concrete provides a comprehensive examination of the subject, and will be of use to all concerned with the durability and effectiveness of concrete structures.
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