The downsizing of the United States Federal government since the 1980s has put pressure on state governments to find new sources of revenue to support new responsibilities. Taxpayers have made it clear that increases in property, sales or income taxes would not be tolerated. Increasingly, state legislators are turning to other sources, the most controversial of which is the legalized gambling industry. The first part of the book looks at the structure and forces that shape the gambling industry. A short history of gambling in the US illustrates the central role governments have played. The three segments of the industry (pari-mutual betting, lotteries, and casinos) are then detailed. The second part of the book analyzes the economic issues involved, with a particular focus on the ability of the various segments of the industry to provide revenue to the state. The final part of the book discusses emerging trends such as online gambling. It also compares the American experience with that of Australia and various European countries. This book should be of particular interest to students, practitioners and scholars in public policy. It should also be pertinent to readers in economics, political science and business.
A non-linear wave is one of the fundamental objects of nature. They are inherent to aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, solid state physics and plasma physics, optics and field theory, chemistry reaction kinetics and population dynamics, nuclear physics and gravity. All non-linear waves can be divided into two parts: dispersive waves and dissipative ones. The history of investigation of these waves has been lasting about two centuries. In 1834 J. S. Russell discovered the extraordinary type of waves without the dispersive broadening. In 1965 N. J. Zabusky and M. D. Kruskal found that the Korteweg-de Vries equation has solutions of the solitary wave form. This solitary wave demonstrates the particle-like properties, i. e. , stability under propagation and the elastic interaction under collision of the solitary waves. These waves were named solitons. In succeeding years there has been a great deal of progress in understanding of soliton nature. Now solitons have become the primary components in many important problems of nonlinear wave dynamics. It should be noted that non-linear optics is the field, where all soliton features are exhibited to a great extent. This book had been designed as the tutorial to the theory of non-linear waves in optics. The first version was projected as the book covering all the problems in this field, both analytical and numerical methods, and results as well. However, it became evident in the process of work that this was not a real task.
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